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Communication, Navigation and Surveillance System- The system guiding the global Air Traffic Management

Introduction Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems are systems employing digital technologies, together with satellite systems with varied ranges of…

By Ronald Snow , in Drones & Helicopters , at December 2, 2019 5:16 AM EST Tags: , , , , , ,

Introduction

Introduction CNS
Introduction CNS

Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) systems are systems employing digital technologies, together with satellite systems with varied ranges of automation, utilized in support of a seamless global Air Traffic Management (ATM) system.
This doesn’t appear particularly clear in distinguishing between these aspects of the system which might be related and those that aren’t. Therefore, the time period, “CNS” is defined below.
CNS encompasses the parts of the global Air Traffic Management system related to actual time acquisition and transmission of operationally similar data on aircraft position, identification, meteorological phenomena, system status, and ATM control actions. It contains the elements of the aircraft system related to the management of its own aircraft position utilizing acquired information. From this angle, CNS might be seen as consisting of surveillance systems that purchase chosen data concerning the world and communication programs that transmit that information from the purpose of acquisition to the varied customers.
The surveillance data is primarily aircraft positions. However, it could additionally embody winds, locations of hazardous weather, turbulence, volcanic ash, and so on. Navigation might be considered as a particular case of buying one’s position and using it to achieve the desired trajectory. If using the information includes considerably more than displaying primary data to the person, then the related subsystems will usually be thought of to be within the realm of ATM reasonably than CNS.

Introduction CNS
Introduction CNS

Communications- VHF aeronautical communications band is divided into 25kHz channels that are used for voice and data communication between ground and the aircraft. Voice communication is used for the ATC section of Air Traffic Services and airline operations. Data Transmission is used for Aeronautical Operational Control communication along with operations center.

Communications CNS
Communications CNS

• Voice Systems – Air traffic controllers conduct their work utilizing voice communication with aircraft pilots on the ground and in the air. There’s a restriction on the number of aircraft that can be managed by this method by a single air traffic controller. As the quantity of air traffic grows, current ATC methods require that the airspace be re-sectored, and more controllers added to the ATC system, along with more voice channels.

Data Systems
Data Systems

• Data Systems – The Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) is extensively used at present for AOC-aircraft communication. The two main ACARS service providers are ARINC (Aeronautical Radio, Inc.) and SITA (Societe Internationale deTelecommunications Aeronautiques).

Mobile data hyperlink communications are offered over the VHF data hyperlink, Inmarsat satellite links, and High-Frequency Data Link (HFDL). The latter modes provide for communication over the oceans and in remote areas. Ten 25 kHz aeronautical VHF channels are allocated worldwide for ACARS but in any location all ten are not utilized.

Navigations-

Navigation
Navigation

The present ATM system is supported by an infrastructure of VHF OmniDirectional Range (VOR) transmitters with Distance Measuring Equipment (DME). These VO “nodes” are linked by low altitude and high altitude airways.
Most ATM separation features are based mostly on aircraft following these airways. Area navigation or RNAV gear that permits direct point to point (great circle route) navigation is broadly available. Most commercial airliners use VOR/DME based mostly RNAV equipment in the U.S. Oceanic flight requires Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). Global Positioning System (GPS) has gained huge acceptance in General Aviation and Business aircraft.
Selective availability was not too long ago turned off by the military, which will increase accuracy. The limitation to make use of direct routing isn’t because of lack of equipment on the aircraft, it’s due to lack of capability of the ATM system to just accept widespread direct routing.

Surveillance
Surveillance

Surveillance-

In the near term, surveillance will stay primarily ground-based radar and assist each Mode S and Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon. System (ATC-RBS) geared up aircraft.
Longer-term will see a rise in Mode S geared up aircraft; however, the help of ATCRBS only equipped aircraft will proceed. The introduction of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) will improve the geographic areas beneath surveillance but is not going to get rid of the necessity for ground-based radar any time in the near future.
The present lack of an outlined implementation of ADS-B signifies that application is beyond the next five years. It’s assumed that ADS-B might be launched in areas where benefits will be achieved by an individual equipped aircraft similar to paired approaches or in areas where all aircraft will first be required to equip corresponding to oceanic.

CNS capabilities

Airline operations center at present have access to the same traffic and climate data as does the Air Traffic Control System Command Center – ATCSCC though in lots of circumstances AOCs have their very own climate sources and forecasts. Traffic information is accessible by the Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS).

CNS Capabilities
CNS Capabilities

Surveillance information is collected from each ARTCC into the ETMS central database, then distributed to all individuals via ground and satellite networks. ETMS offers varied strategies for projecting future airspace congestion and traffic loading. Airline operations center have numerous sources of climate input nearly as good or better than that available to the FAA.
Data taps to TDWRs are typically obtainable from commercial vendors. The airline operation centers now interface with ATC on their strategic flow decisions by voice over the phone. There doesn’t look like any technical problem to permitting airline operations center to enter preferences, however, these interfaces can’t be outlined with no more detailed operational concept. There’s presently no operational concept describing how the airline operations center would interface with CTAS/TMA.

The CNS system market growth

CNS Market
CNS Market

The air traffic management market is estimated to surpass $10 billion by 2025. The rise in passenger traffic and development in the global economy will increase market growth over the study timeframe.
The air traffic control system will probably register a development of over 3% by 2025 due to the rising adoption of recent technology, increasing the application of artificial intelligence, 4D trajectory prediction systems, and different software program are repeatedly upgrading systems of air traffic control. The air traffic control gives major services in airports, which embrace clearance for plane landing & takeoff and provides directions for aircraft on the ground. The principle aim of this technique is to stop aircraft collisions with different aircraft and equipment on the time of maneuvering on the ground and in air.

Conclusion

Communication, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS) are the main functions forming the infrastructure for Air Traffic Management to ensure safety and efficiency of the air traffic. Communication is radio communication or exchange of data between two or more aircrafts. Navigation is the process of recording, planning and controlling the movements of the aircraft. The position of the aircraft is determined by Surveillance.

CNS Conclusion
CNS Conclusion

FAQs

1. What is CNS short for in aviation?

CNS is short for Communication, Navigation and Surveillance, the main functions forming the infrastructure for Air Traffic Management to ensure the safety and efficiency of the air traffic.

2. What is the function of Communication in Air traffic management (ATM)?

Communication is divide in two segments, voice and data systems. Voice communication is used for the ATC section of Air Traffic Services and airline operations. Data Transmission is used for Aeronautical Operational Control communication along with operations centers.

3. What is the function of Navigation in ATM?

Navigation is the process of recording, planning and controlling the movements of the aircraft. Area navigation or RNAV gear that permits direct point to point (great circle route) navigation is broadly available. Most commercial airliners use VOR/DME based mostly RNAV equipment in the U.S. Oceanic flight requires Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). Global Positioning System (GPS) has gained huge acceptance in General Aviation and Business aircraft.

4. What is Surveillance in ATM?

The surveillance data is primarily aircraft positions. However, it could additionally embody winds, locations of hazardous weather, turbulence, volcanic ash, and so on.